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By Hamed Olfat, Mohsen Kalantari, Abbas Rajabifard, Ian P. Williamson,
Christopher Pettit, Stephen Williams

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World Spatial Metadata Standards
Edited By
Harold Moellering,
H.J. Aalders,
Aaron Crane
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The Geospatial Web
By Arno Scharl, Klaus Tochtermann

Geographic information metadata for spatial data infrastructuresBy Javier Nogueras-Iso, F. Javier Zarazaga-Soria, Pedro R. Muro-Medrano
Edition: illustrated
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Metadata Fundamentals for All Librarians
By Priscilla Caplan

The map library in the new millennium
By Robert B. Parry, C. R. Perkins
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Intelligent Information Integration for the Semantic Web  
By Ubbo Visser

Online GIS and spatial metadata
By David Green, Terry Richard John Bossomaier

Virtual Geographic Environments
by Hui Lin and Michael Batty

Internet GIS: Distributed Geographic Information Services for the Internet and Wireless Networks
By Dr. Zhong-Ren Peng and Dr. Ming-Hsiang Tsou

Metadata solutions : using metamodels, repositories, XML, and enterprise portals to generate information on demand, By Adrienne Tannenbaum

ISO Standards for Geographic Information
 By Wolfgang Kresse, Kian Fadaie
Tagging: people-powered metadata for the social web
By Gene Smith

Metadata and Semantics

 By Miguel-Angel Sicilia, Miltiadis D. Lytras

Metadata 100 Success Secrets 100 Most Asked Questions on Meta Data How-To Management, Repositories, Software, Standards, Tools and Databases
By George Nelson

Library Automation in Transitional Societies: Lessons from Eastern Europe

By Andrew Lass, Richard E. Quandt, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
Metadata in Practice
By Diane Ileana Hillmann, Elaine L. Westbrooks, American Library Association
Metadata: a cataloger's primer

By Richard P. Smiraglia
Electronic cataloging: AACR2 and metadata for serials and monographs

By Sheila S. Intner, Sally C. Tseng, Mary Lynette Larsgaard
Metadata and organizing educational resources on the Internet

By Jane Greenberg

By Marcia Lei Zeng and Jian Qin
Universal Meta Data Models

By David Marco and Michael Jennings
Building and Managing the Meta Data Repository: A Full Lifecycle Guide

By David Marco

Archive articles

Automatic Spatial Metadata Enrichment:
Reducing Metadata Creation Burden through Spatial
Metadata plays a key role in facilitating access to up-to-date spatial information and contributes to the finding and delivering of high quality spatial information services to users. In particular, metadata is an important element in functioning and facilitating spatial data infrastructure (SDI) initiatives. With huge amount of spatial information being generated, a spatial application must be sufficiently flexible to extract and update spatial metadata automatically.
Automatic spatial metadata generation framework includes three fundamental but complementary streams; automatic creation, automatic update and automatic enrichment of spatial metadata. This paper explores the automatic metadata enrichment stream based on the tagging and folksonomy concepts. The paper argues how folksonomies help bringing the vocabulary of spatial data users into play and using them hand in hand with those sometimes mysterious terms supplied by experts in metadata records.
The paper then builds on the tagging and folksonomy concepts and proposes a conceptual model to employ them for spatial metadata enrichment. The paper finally discusses advantages and disadvantages of this approach against formal type of organizing spatial metadata.

Automatic Spatial Metadata Update: a New Approach

Spatial metadata is a vital tool for spatial data management, retrieval and distribution. It is also a critical component for any spatial data sharing platform which provides users with information about the purpose, quality, actuality and accuracy of spatial datasets. With the amount of spatial data exchanged through the web environment, the demand for automatic spatial metadata creation and updating to describe such resources is increasing. However, automatic spatial metadata updating is still in its infancy and automatic approaches are being explored by researchers.
So far different processes and tools have been developed which generate and update a limited number of spatial metadata elements in different standard schemes automatically, thus a large amount of spatial data elements need to be imported manually. In order to improve this situation, this paper aims at exploring a new synchronisation approach based on XML/GML technologies to automate spatial metadata update process, by which dataset properties are read from the dataset file and written into its metadata file automatically.
The paper first discusses the important role of metadata in Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) as an enabling platform and proposes an architecture to manage spatial metadata. It then compares different methods of spatial metadata generation and presents a spatial metadata automation framework. Based on this framework, the paper finally introduces a
synchronisation approach to achieve the spatial metadata automatic update.

Technologies and the development of the Automated Metadata Indexing and Analysis (AMIA) system

The Automated Metadata Indexing and Analysis (AMIA) project aims to provide an effective digital asset management (DAM) tool for large digital asset databases. We began with text-based indexing since it is still the most reliable approach as compared with other content-based media features. AMIA not only searches for the text of the file name, but also utilizes embedded information such as the metadata in Maya files. The AMIA system builds a linked map between all dependency files. We present an approach of preserving previously established metadata created by the old DAM tools, such as AlienBrain, and integrating them into the new system. Findings indicate that AMIA has significantly improved search performance comparing to previous DAM tools. Finally, the ongoing and future work in the AMIA project is described.

Automating geospatial metadata generation— An integrated data management and documentation approach

Geospatial metadata have long played an important role in the management of geospatial datasets. Often employed by institutions to organise, maintain and document their geographic resources internally, metadata may also provide a vehicle for exposing marketable data assets externally when contributed to on-line geospatial exchange initiatives. In spite of the numerous benefits it affords, obstacles to the production of such geospatial surrogates are numerous. The current work proposes an approach aimed at reducing the effort associated with geospatial metadata generation through the customisation of a proprietary Geographical Information System (GIS). By coupling data preparation, management and documentation approaches with such a bespoke application, it is intended to mitigate impediments to geospatial metadata generation whilst promoting a system of data administration that safeguards the data it supports. The current prototype, implementing an extended Dublin Core geospatial profile of 23 elements, was capable of generating a total of 20 basic metadata entries. While the findings do not suggest a dispensability of human mediation in the authoring process, they do support the view that a dataset’s ambient computing infrastructure has the potential to play a significant role in automating the creation of geospatial metadata.

A Method for Automating Geospatial Dataset Metadata
Metadata have long been recognised as crucial to geospatial asset management and discovery, and yet undertaking their creation remains an unenviable task often to be avoided. This paper proposes a practical approach designed to address such concerns, decomposing various data creation, management, update and documentation process steps that are subsequently leveraged to contribute towards metadata record completion. Using a customised utility embedded within a common GIS application, metadata elements are computationally derived from an imposed feature metadata standard, dataset geometry, an integrated storage protocol and pre-prepared content, and instantiated within a common geospatial discovery convention. Yielding 27 out of a 32 total metadata elements (or 15 out of 17 mandatory elements) the approach demonstrably lessens the burden of metadata authorship. It also encourages improved geospatial asset management whilst outlining core requisites for developing a more open metadata strategy not bound to any particular application domain.
Experiences in the Creation and Updating of INSPIRE Compliant Metadata Catalogue
One of the first steps for the set up of a spatial data infrastructure is the creation of metadata standards and corresponding metadata catalogue. In Italy, the “Committee for technical rules for public administration spatial data”, established according to the national law on “Digital Administration Code” and including the participation of many public administrations involved in spatial data production, has worked on the development of rules for defining the National Metadata Catalogue, as well as the technical rules for the creation and updating of this catalogue of spatial datasets and services of general interest, created, maintained and updated by the Public Administrations. The present paper presents the work done within the project D.I.V.A. of the Italian Ministry of Environment and Protection of Land and Sea in order to achieve a full compliance of the Italian Metadata Catalogue with the INSPIRE Implementing Rules and its application for environmental purposes. Several comparisons have been performed at different levels in order to check the level of conformity, including, INSPIRE Implementing Rules and Guidance, National proposal, ISO standards and common practise metadata information. Particular attention has been given to practical tests of filling in metadata for environmental data. Several difficulties have been pointed out, that need to be well addressed with guidances in order to obtain correct metadata and correct use of data classification.

Metadata play a key role to facilitate accessing to up-to-date spatial information and plays an important aspect in finding and delivering high quality spatial information services to users. In particular, metadata is an important element in functioning and facilitating spatial data infrastructure (SDI) initiatives. With huge amount of spatial information being generated, a spatial application must be sufficiently flexible to extract and update spatial metadata automatically. By contrast, in current applications, the extract and update process is undertaken manually, making changes to spatial metadata relatively more difficult and expensive. This paper explores different approaches for automating spatial metadata and the impacts of these approaches on critical components of metadata such as standards, data model so that the process of updating or extracting spatial metadata – where feasible – becomes automatic. This approach distinguishes between already existing methods by emphasising on new technologies like Web 2.0. Within a metadata application, different approaches of data modelling including integrated spatial data and metadata model, user generated tags and metadata standards will be presented and discussed. Link to current article
Metadata in Flanders (Belgium) - The challenge to tune problems and disadvantages into opportunities

In 1995, the Geographical Information System Flanders, or SDI-Flanders was set up as a partnership for the optimal use of geographical information within the Flemish civil services. The Flemish Geographical Information Agency (AGIV), as executive partner of SDI-Flanders, is coordinating the implementation of the INSPIRE Directive at regional level, starting with the topic metadata. AGIV has converted its existing CEN based metadata repository to an ISO 19115 compliant repository and built an online application to query, edit and manage this repository ( Because AGIV could start from its CEN based metadata repository, a comprehensively ISO compliant metadata repository could be built relatively quick. The disadvantage related to this conversion process was that the mapping between metadata elements in the different standards was not easily made. The metadata authors had to upgrade their metadata into the more complex ISO 19115 model and experienced this as very labour-intensive. The metadata repository is based on the SDI-Flanders metadata profile for spatial data sets (ISO 19115). The SDI-Flanders profile implements the INSPIRE implementing rule for metadata and extends it with extra elements about quality and distribution because these elements are poorly foreseen in the INSPIRE implementing rules. To fulfil user needs, AGIV also implemented metadata for feature catalogues using the ISO standard 19110 as well. Metadata publishers can describe, create, update, delete, and publish metadata using the online metadata application. Requestors can discover, either by browsing or querying, metadata and view and/or download the metadata set(s) that match with the search terms. Metadata records can be exported to ISO 19139 compliant XML or a PDF document. The metadata repository is centrally managed by AGIV. AGIV is also adopting the implementing rules on discovery services in Flanders. Therefore, an experimental CSW service has been set up which enables querying the metadata repository. Despite the operational, user-friendly online metadata application, the geodata owners have not sufficiently grown accustomed to this application. The metadata of the data sets owned by AGIV are 100% synchronised, while at present the metadata of other members of GIS-Flanders does often not reach this level. Currently, the need for metadata services in Flanders is limited as services are currently under development. Future challenges for AGIV shall be the implementation of the remaining components of the INSPIRE Directive. This includes the integration of the metadata application and metadata services with view (WMS) and download (WFS, WCS) services, and web applications. The integration of metadata services into a portfolio of other services along the lines of typical use-case workflows is expected to raise the usage level of metadata, whilst yielding an increased demand for middleware and end-user services. With a modern bind infrastructure, costs of data distribution for AGIV will be reduced and data will be more accessible for users. These challenges and the modernization of our services are planned in 2009. In addition, AGIV started to develop a Geographic Service Bus based on Enterprise Service Bus principles, enabling secured orchestration, process chaining, data transformation and model mapping.

SDI and Metadata Entry and Updating Tools

Metadata is a vital tool for management of spatial data and plays a key role in any spatial data infrastructure (SDI) initiative. It provides users of spatial data with information about the purpose, quality, actuality and accuracy and many more of spatial datasets. Metadata performs crucial functions that make spatial data interoperable. However, current metadata models and standards are complex and very difficult to handle. Also, metadata for spatial datasets is often missing or incomplete and is acquired in heterogeneous ways.
Typically, it is acquired after the spatial data itself, through lengthy and complex efforts. Metadata is usually created and stored separately to the actual data set it relates to. Separation of storage creates two independent data sets that must be managed and updated - spatial data and metadata. These are often redundant and inconsistent. Thus, the reliability of spatial data and the extent it can be used are often unclear. To respond to this issue, this article discusses the importance of having an integrated system for both spatial data and metadata in which that metadata and spatial data can be integrated within the one spatial dataset, so that when spatial data is updated, metadata related to that data is also automatically updated. The article highlights the significance of spatial data and metadata integration through developing a set of criteria for metadata application development and the result of applying the criteria against a selection of metadata entry tools (METs).

Automatic metadata generation using associative networks

In spite of its tremendous value, metadata is generally sparse and incomplete, thereby hampering the effectiveness of digital information services. Many of the existing mechanisms for the automated creation of metadata rely primarily on content analysis which can be costly and inefficient. The automatic metadata generation system proposed in this article leverages resource relationships generated from existing metadata as a medium for propagation from metadata-rich to metadata-poor resources. Because of its independence from content analysis, it can be applied to a wide variety of resource media types and is shown to be computationally inexpensive. The proposed method operates through two distinct phases. Occurrence and cooccurrence algorithms first generate an associative network of repository resources leveraging existing repository metadata. Second, using the associative network as a substrate, metadata associated with metadata-rich resources is propagated to metadata-poor resources by means of a discrete-form spreading activation algorithm. This article discusses the general framework for building associative networks, an algorithm for disseminating metadata through such networks, and the results of an experiment and validation of the proposed method using a standard bibliographic dataset.

Functionalities for automatic metadata generation applications: a survey of metadata experts' opinions

This paper reports on the automatic metadata generation applications (AMeGA) project's metadata expert survey. Automatic metadata generation research is reviewed and the study's methods, key findings and conclusions are presented. Participants anticipate greater accuracy with automatic techniques for technical metadata (e.g., ID, language, and format metadata) compared to metadata requiring intellectual discretion (e.g., subject and description metadata). Support for implementing automatic techniques paralleled anticipated accuracy results. Metadata experts are in favour of using automatic techniques, although they are generally not in favour of eliminating human evaluation or production for the more intellectually demanding metadata. Results are incorporated into Version 1.0 of the Recommended Functionalities for automatic metadata generation applications (Appendix A).

Automating metadata generation: the simple indexing interface

The paper focuses on the development of a framework for automatic metadata generation. The first step towards this framework is the definition of an Application Programmer Interface (API), which is called the Simple Indexing Interface (SII). The second step is the definition of a framework for implementation of the SII. Both steps are presented in some detail in this paper. It also reports on empirical evaluation of the metadata that the SII and supporting framework generated in a real-life context


Automatic Metadata Creation for Supporting Interoperability Levels of Spatial Data Infrastructures

Interoperability in Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) is a full-grown subject and an objective with many shortcomings as far as definition of standards for geographic data transfer and exchange, different data types’ integration, and comprehensive semantic models is concerned. There is a vast literature available on interoperability models containing different interoperability levels, including technological, syntactic and semantic levels. However, very limited research has been carried out on the development of interoperability models for the implementation of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI). This paper provides a short review of the main advances in interoperability related to SDI. It also discusses the important role of metadata elements in the formalization of interoperability models for the implementation of SDI.
We propose an integrated interoperability model based on the definition of a common template that integrates seven interoperability levels: technical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, conceptual and organizational. The implementation is carried out by automatic production of ISO19115 metadata. Finally, the results outline the strength and deficiencies in terms of the dynamic interoperability level of SDI based on the elements of ISO19115 metadata.

Computers, Environment and Urban Systems
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems is an interdisciplinary journal publishing cutting-edge and innovative computer-based research on environmental and urban systems, that privileges the geospatial perspective.
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Journal of the Geographical Society of New South Wales Visit the australia-geographerorganisation site Published By: Routledge Volume Number: 41 Frequency: 4 issues per year Print ISSN: 0004-9182 Online ISSN: 1465-3311



Future Internet (ISSN 1999-5903), an Open Access journal on Internet technologies and the information society, is published by Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) online quarterly. For more information please visit:

The Journal of Spatial Information Science (JOSIS) is an international, interdisciplinary, open-access journal dedicated to publishing high-quality, original research articles in spatial information science. The journal aims to publish research spanning the theoretical foundations of spatial and geographical information science, through computation with geospatial information, to technologies for geographical information use. For more information, please visit the link below:

D-Lib Magazine is a solely electronic publication with a primary focus on digital library research and development, including but not limited to new technologies, applications, and contextual social and economic issues. The magazine is currently published six times a year. The full contents of the magazine, including all back issues, are available free of charge at the D-Lib web site ( as well as multiple mirror sites around the world.

International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies (IJMSO)
ISSN (Online): 1744-263X - ISSN (Print): 1744-2621

IJMSO aims at publishing research advances and discussions about meta-data in a broad sense, and about their associated semantics and ontological structures, from a multi-disciplinary perspective, and with an emphasis on domain-specific ontologies and organisational, human interaction and social issues regarding metadata annotation, use and assessment. It also intends covering Semantic Web research, as a concrete metadata-intensive technological framework in which shared and standardised semantics are a critical issue.

Position Magazine is Australasia's magazine for the surveying, mapping and geoinformation industries.


Coordinates is a monthly magazine on positioning, navigation and associated technologies.


International Journal of Geographical Information Science
2008 Impact Factor: 1.596; Five-Year Impact Factor: 2.293 ©2009 Thomson Reuters, 2008 Journal Citation Report® Published By: Taylor & Francis Volume Number: 24 Frequency: 12 issues per year Print ISSN: 1365-8816 Online ISSN: 1365-8824



Meta 2011 Conference, 25-27 May, Canberra, Australia


ShareGeo is the place to find and to share geospatial data. You can search the data held in ShareGeo using keywords or by using a map to define the area you are interested in. Contributing data to ShareGeo is also very simple. Just register and then click "contribute" and follow the steps to upload your dataset.
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GeoDoc is an automated geotagging tool

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GeoREST: Web-centric publishing for spatial data

GeoREST is a web-centric framework for distributing geospatial data. It allows feature-based access to spatial data sources, including full editing capabilities, through a map server or directly via FDO. For more information,

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The presentations of MetadataAustralia2010 Conference which was held in University House, ANU, Canberra in May 2010 are now accessible via:

The International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications 2010, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 20-22 October. For more information, please visit:
GSDI 12 World Conference
19-22 October 2010
Theme: Realizing Spatially Enabled Societies

Shared Land Information Platform

WALIS Metadata Policy (

Become Founding Member of International Geospatial Society: Last Chance

The International Geospatial Society is a new venture of the GSDI Association to establish and support an international community of individuals who are specialists or professionals with geospatial, spatial data infrastructure, GIS and related interests. The goal is to engage and enhance communications internationally among individuals that are actively involved in promoting, developing, or advancing spatial data infrastructure and affiliated concepts. The benefits of joining are listed at or Join now to have a voice and be actively engaged in developing the bylaws and operating procedures. For more information please visit:

OGC Network™ is a window onto the dynamic, constantly changing geospatial web as described by the OpenGIS® Reference Model (ORM). Multiple communities of interest for research in geospatial interoperability are supported, and persistent demonstration capability is provided. Here you will find the latest information on OGC-compatible software, services, and information models (e.g. GML profiles, SLD examples, etc.). From this site you can quickly locate OGC-compatible geospatial web services, the latest XML schema documents, discussion forums, conformance testing resources, and GML profile working areas.

FIG Congress 2010 - Facing the Challenges – Building the Capacity will be held in Sydney, Australia, 11-16 April 2010. For more information please visit following link:

The School of Information and Library Science (SILS) Metadata Research Center <MRC> has been established to advance research in the area of metadata, semantics, and ontologies. For more information, please visit the link below:

ANZLIC the Spatial Information Council - Infrastructure: Metadata
Geospatial Metadata — Federal Geographic Data Committee
Metadata Tools for Geospatial Data (ANZLIC Metadata Profile Related Information)

OpenGov 2.0 Initiative Australia 2010

metadataAustralia2010 Conference
“sharing data, sharing ideas”

NIMLI stands for ‘National Infrastructure for Managing Land Information’. NIMLI is an ARC Linkage Project funded by the Australian Research Council (ARC) in collaboration with The University of Melbourne, Land Victoria (VIC), Landgate (WA), the Land and Property Authority (NSW), and PSMA Australia. The project aims to design, build and manage a new infrastructure to integrate disparate state based land information and administration processes to meet national needs.


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CatMDEdit Metadata Editor

ANZMet Lite metadata entry tool (version 1.01)

M.E INTA Metadata Editor






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